Coating the Paper
In Darkroom, with emulsion melted at around 35- 38c, Pin paper to be coated on a pile of newspapers, and place it in a manner that is not hit directly by the light , as shown in figure.
Where the pile of newspapers act as wall protecting the emulsion from excessive “safe” light exposure which will degrade the whites on development. Alternatively, during coating, shade the paper with your own body as shown previously.
emulsion may be coated directly on watercolor fiber paper. For better blacks Apply first 1 coat of a 10% gelatine solution as a sub. to the paper. After sub has dried, apply 2 to 3 thin brush coats of liquid photographic emulsion.
use the softest brush you can find and make sure is wide enough for the area of paper you will be coating.
Emulsion Capacity / Brush Coated:
1 Liter ( about 1 quart) covers about 100 sheets of fiber Paper size (20 x 25 cm) 8 x10 in. this liquid emulsion is one of the contrasted LUCENTA EMULSIONS so it can also be coated directly on natural wood giving very strong blacks.
Sensitivity of Lucenta Emulsion Number 4 to the white “Safe” Light of a 25w incandescent bulb
At 8 feet distance Dry coated paper will begin to show fog on development with an exposure of 2 minutes. It must not be exposed directly longer to 1 minute to that light. For Safer Light use a 25 w Bright Yellow bulb. In a humid condition coated emulsion can stand double exposure times given without fog.
Drying the photo Paper
Place coated photographic paper inside an ordinary brown carton box.
Place it AS SHOWN IN FIGURE, in a manner that paper being dried inside of it, is not hit directly by the safelight. Paper shaded in this manner,
can be left to dry as long as it is necessary without risk of safelight fog.
To dry, direct Cold air from a fan, as seen in the figure. emulsion will be firm enough in 5-10 minutes to receive second coat even if first coat is not completely dried.
Apply a third coat in same way if necessary. After drying pack away safely. in total darkness in a dry cool place it keeps a long time. Expose and process,
follow all steps, see below:
Exposing & Processing LUCENTA Chloride Unwashed Positive Emulsion # 4
,HOW TO MAKE A CONTACT PRINTER
Place the coated paper in firm contact with a silver negative produced on glass or celluloid,
Make a contact printer as shown in figure
, tape a piece of glass to a board.
Lift the glass, place the coated paper on the baseboard, on top of the sensitive paper. place the negative, lower the glass in a manner that its weight firmly presses the negative in close contact with coated paper.
Make the exposure to white light. ( as in figure) the function of The glass in the printing frame is to let the light go through while at the same time pressing the negative against the paper for sharp lines on the developed image.
Instead of a silver negative . A DIGITAL negative ( made by computer/ printed on acetate) can be used. The final size of the image will be the same size as the negative employed.
how to Make the Exposure
Expose the negative in contact with the paper in the printer frame ( as shown above) to white the light, as shown now in figure to the the right.
At the end of exposure;
-Separate negative from the light sensitive coated paper, and then develop the exposed paper. The negative of course can be used again and again for a infinite number of times. If negative was made on acetate, it must be taped to the sheet of glass.
TO MAKE THE NEGATIVE:
a silver negative on celluloid can be used, for that you need a darkroom. much easier is to make a DIGITAL NEGATIVE. that is printed on acetate commanded from a photo editing program in the computer. full tutorial is given in my book: " THE LUCENTA MANUAL OF SILVER EMULSIONS ".
processing / developing and fixing the exposed image
30 - 45 seconds for blue black tones
or 2 -6 min for brown to sepia tones. (see below)
2. STOP BATH
Transfer to a 1 % solution of acetic acid stop bath for 30 seconds.
If there is damage here or during washing use LUCENTA Boric Alum Hardening stop bath (which see) for 30-60 secs,
With this excellent stop bath, a plain non hardening fixing bath can be used below.
for no more than 10 minutes In an" ordinary hardening ” fixer. that is, thiosulphate with potassium alum
agitate with frequent agitation. For Archival Permanency:
fix for 10 minutes in 2 fixing baths.
First Bath: 5 minutes this bath can be a used bath (but not overworked) Second Bath: 5 minutes, bath must be fresh and unused. shade the paper during processing. after 2 minutes in the fixing bath, white light can be turned on, the photographic paper is no longer sensitive to light.
after fixing for 10 minutes, wash the photo paper ( now bearing the developed image) during 30 minutes in gently running water.
Developing for Brown Black Tones:
a minimum exposures, example: 25 seconds,
yields photo images of a intense black tone,
for warm tones:
Expose 100 % more than for black tones
and prolong developing time.
Develop for 4 - 6 min at 23 c in: kodak's Dektol
or D72 paper developer diluted with 2 parts water.
for more intense brown tones,
add to every 70ml of the paper developer in use:
10 ml of a 10 % solution of Citric Acid.
" photographic PAPER DEVELOPER D 72
This silver halide paper developer is identical to kodak’s Dektol, it can also substitute Ilford’s Bromophen or Agfa’s Neutol paper developers.
Water about 50c ( 125 f) ..............500 ml
Metol (or kodak’s Elon) ......................3 grams
sodium sulphite anhydrous ..............45 grams
Hydroquinone 12 grams
sodium carbonate monohydrated .....80 grams
( If anhydrous use 67 grams)
Potassium bromide ..............................2 grams
add cold water to make total:.... 1000 ml
For all paper used diluted with 2 parts water. Developing Time at 20c ( 68 f ) for LUCENTA bromide Emulsion # 1: 1.5 minutes For Cloro-bromide Emulsions # 2 and # 3: 45 - 60 seconds. For Pure Chloride emulsions # 4, #5 and # 6: 30- 45 seconds.
FORMULA: HARDENING FIXER BATH
Mix in the order given:
Water at around 50 - 60 c (125 f +)..... 600 ml
Sodium Thiosulphate ( Hypo) ...................240 gm
Sodium Sulphite ( anhydrous ) ...................15 gm
Acetic Acid ( glacial = about 90 % +) .......13 ml
(or 28 % made by diluting glacial 3:8) ..235 ml
Boric Acid ( crystals ) ................................7.5 gm
Potassium Alum ......................................... .15 gm
Add cold water to a final Volume of ....1000 mL
CAPACITY: 100 ml fixes no more than 2 sheets 8x10 inches.
see also links on bottom of this page
IMAGES BELOW: some photographic works on paper and wood made with the lucenta emulsion formula num: 4 just given to you and printed by contact on flat surfaces coated with the emulsion.
note that the emulsion formula LUCENTA CHLORIDE num 4, given above is of contact speed, which means the exposure is made with the negative " in contact " with the sensitized surface, if surface is not flat. the negative can not make intimate contact, the result is that the image will not be sharp.
if you like to makeS photographic pictures on irregular surfaces like eggs, stones, spoons
etc, you need an emulsion of higher light sensitivity. in such case you need warm tone LUCENTA CLORO-BROMIDE or pure BROMIDE emulsions. These are so rapid, that you can " project " the image onto the sensitized surface using an enlarger. below some photographic art works using these LUCENTA rapid positive emulsions. to make these, step by step, you need to order my book.
above: silver images on irregular surfaces, eggs, spoons, plates, and stones using LUCENTA RAPID warm tone cloro-bromide and cold tone bromide positive silver emulsions; these formulas are given in my BOOK: